Spot zoning is one kind of zoning variance.
It is the process of singling out a plot of land or building within a larger zoned area for different type of use.
For example, a commercial building, park or school might be granted within a strictly residential area, as surrounding residents may benefit from it.
Spot zoning is not always popular. In some cases, it is found illegal as it is not compatible with the comprehensive zoning plan for that community and against the public interest.
Spot zoning may be pre-planned or might be granted by the planning commission or local planning agency under zoning laws and ordinance followed by the landowner’s petition for rezoning.