What is Data Redundancy? How to Avoid it

Data redundancy is the repetitive storage of the same data in multiple places within a database OR duplicate storage of the same data in more than one databases. Data redundancy can happen consciously for backup or data security purposes. Sometimes it may happen accidentally due to poor database design or inefficient software design. Now, you … Read more

What is Exclusionary zoning? Context, History and Discrimination

Exclusionary zoning is a practice that has been used by zoning board, local planning authority or municipalities in the United States to restrict the development of certain types of housing in certain areas. This practice has been used to prevent the construction of low-income housing in wealthier neighborhoods, effectively limiting the ability of lower-income individuals … Read more

What is Downzoning?

Downzoning is a change in the zoning laws of a particular area that restricts the types of uses or development that can take place on a piece of property. When an area or a piece of land is downzoned, it is actually changed to a less intense use category from a more intense use category. … Read more

What is Aesthetic Zoning?

Aesthetic zoning is a type of zoning that is used in real estate development to regulate the appearance and design of buildings in a given area. This type of zoning is intended to create a cohesive and attractive visual environment by ensuring that new buildings are designed in a way that is consistent with the … Read more

What is Zoning?

Zoning is a regulatory approach to control how land or real estate of an area would be used. It divides the whole area into different zones. Such as: Commercial Industrial Residential and Agricultural The government applies zoning law to specify which area is to be used for what kind of zoning. As we see a … Read more

Spot zoning

Spot zoning is one kind of zoning variance. It is the process of singling out a plot of land or building within a larger zoned area for a different type of use. For example, a commercial building, park, or school might be granted within a strictly residential area, as surrounding residents may benefit from it. … Read more

What is Cluster Zoning?

Cluster zoning is a type of zoning that allows for increased density in exchange for open space. This can be done by clustering homes together and leaving open space in between, or by increasing the height limit on buildings. The purpose of cluster zoning is to allow for more development while still preserving some green … Read more

EPC Contract

EPC stands for ‘Engineering, Procurement and Construction’. Engineering, Procurement and Construction Contract or EPC contract is a type of construction contract between parties where the contractor is responsible for all the engineering, procurement, and construction activities to deliver the completed project to the employer or owner within a predefined time and cost. Role of an … Read more

What is Referendum?


A referendum is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. This may be a proposed law, constitutional amendment, or other public policy. Referendum is a popular political tool in democracy. It is mostly used to decide over things of mass interest. In some countries, it … Read more



Project is a limited-time venture, planned with a set of tasks to achieve the desired goal or goals which are not available now. The desired goal could be a product, service, result, business model or a strategy. In today’s competitive and technological advanced business environment it could be anything. Project and routine operations are not … Read more